Bibliographie actualisée en JUILLET 2019


  1. J. C. Adachi and T. Willoughby, “The effect of video game competition and violence on aggressive behavior: Which characteristic has the greatest influence?,” Psychology of Violence, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 259–274, 2011.


  1. L. Adams, M. E. Marini, J. Stokes, L. L. Birch, I. M. Paul, and J. S. Savage, “INSIGHT responsive parenting intervention reduces infant’s screen time and television exposure,” Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, vol. 15, no. 1, p. 24, 15 2018.


  1. Ahluwalia, S. M. Frenk, and S. F. Quan, “Screen time behaviours and caffeine intake in US children: findings from the cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES),” BMJ Paediatr Open, vol. 2, no. 1, p. e000258, 2018.


  1. Aishworiya, J. S. Kiing, Y. H. Chan, S. S. Tung, and E. Law, “Screen time exposure and sleep among children with developmental disabilities,” J Paediatr Child Health, Apr. 2018.


Amanda Lenhart, “Teens, Social Media & Technology Overview 2015,” Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech, 09-Apr-2015. .


  1. O. Amawi et al., “Use of Electronic Entertainment and Communication Devices Among a Saudi Pediatric Population: Cross-Sectional Study,” Interact J Med Res, vol. 7, no. 2, p. e13, Sep. 2018.


  1. A. Anderson and B. J. Bushman, “Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: a meta-analytic review of the scientific literature,” Psychol Sci, vol. 12, no. 5, pp. 353–359, Sep. 2001.


  1. A. Anderson and B. J. Bushman, “Psychology. The effects of media violence on society,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5564, pp. 2377–2379, Mar. 2002.


  1. A. Anderson and B. J. Bushman, “The Effects of Media Violence on Society,” Science, vol. 295, no. 5564, pp. 2377–2379, Mar. 2002.


  1. A. Anderson et al., “Screen Violence and Youth Behavior,” Pediatrics, vol. 140, no. Supplement 2, pp. S142–S147, Nov. 2017.


  1. A. Anderson et al., “Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior in eastern and western countries: a meta-analytic review,” Psychol Bull, vol. 136, no. 2, pp. 151–173, Mar. 2010.


  1. R. Anderson, A. C. Huston, K. L. Schmitt, D. L. Linebarger, and J. C. Wright, “Early childhood television viewing and adolescent behavior: the recontact study,” Monogr Soc Res Child Dev, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. I–VIII, 1–147, 2001.


  1. R. Anderson and T. A. Pempek, “Television and Very Young Children,” American Behavioral Scientist, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 505–522, Jan. 2005.


  1. R. Anderson, K. Subrahmanyam, and on behalf of the C. I. of D. M. Workgroup, “Digital Screen Media and Cognitive Development,” Pediatrics, vol. 140, no. Supplement 2, pp. S57–S61, Nov. 2017.


  1. L. Ashby, C. M. Arcari, and M. B. Edmonson, “Television viewing and risk of sexual initiation by young adolescents,” Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, vol. 160, no. 4, pp. 375–380, Apr. 2006.


J.-F. Bach, O. Houdé, P. Léna, and S. Tisseron, “L’enfant et les écrans. Un avis de l’académie des sciences.,” 19-Mar-2013.


  1. E. Barber, B. Kelly, P. J. Collings, L. Nagy, T. Bywater, and J. Wright, “Prevalence, trajectories, and determinants of television viewing time in an ethnically diverse sample of young children from the UK,” Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, vol. 14, no. 1, p. 88, Jul. 2017.


  1. A. Barnett et al., “Sedentary Behaviors in Today’s Youth: Approaches to the Prevention and Management of Childhood Obesity: A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association,” Circulation, vol. 138, no. 11, pp. e142–e159, Sep. 2018.


  1. Barr, “Memory Constraints on Infant Learning From Picture Books, Television, and Touchscreens,” Child Dev Perspect, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 205–210, Dec. 2013.


  1. Barr and D. N. Linebarger, Eds., Media Exposure During Infancy and Early Childhood. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2017.


  1. Beamish, J. Fisher, and H. Rowe, “Parents’ use of mobile computing devices, caregiving and the social and emotional development of children: a systematic review of the evidence,” Australas Psychiatry, p. 1039856218789764, Sep. 2018.


  1. P. Becker and J. A. Lienesch, “Nighttime media use in adolescents with ADHD: links to sleep problems and internalizing symptoms,” Sleep Med., vol. 51, pp. 171–178, Nov. 2018.


  1. Bedford, I. R. Saez de Urabain, C. H. M. Cheung, A. Karmiloff-Smith, and T. J. Smith, “Toddlers’ Fine Motor Milestone Achievement Is Associated with Early Touchscreen Scrolling,” Front Psychol, vol. 7, Aug. 2016.


  1. Bègue, Psychologie du bien et du mal. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2011.


  1. E. Bélanger, C. Akre, A. Berchtold, and P.-A. Michaud, “A U-shaped association between intensity of Internet use and adolescent health,” Pediatrics, vol. 127, no. 2, pp. e330-335, Feb. 2011.


  1. Bellissimo, P. B. Pencharz, S. G. Thomas, and G. H. Anderson, “Effect of television viewing at mealtime on food intake after a glucose preload in boys,” Pediatr. Res., vol. 61, no. 6, pp. 745–749, Jun. 2007.


  1. Benoit, “Pour la dixième année consécutive, l’étude Media In Life de Médiamétrie mesure et analyse la place des médias et des loisirs numériques au cours d’une journée de la vie des personnes vivant en France,” audience le mag, 02-Nov-2015. .


  1. Y. Bernard et al., “Predictors of screen viewing time in young Singaporean children: the GUSTO cohort,” Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, vol. 14, Sep. 2017.


  1. Bernier, M. H. Beauchamp, A.-A. Bouvette-Turcot, S. M. Carlson, and J. Carrier, “Sleep and Cognition in Preschool Years: Specific Links to Executive Functioning,” Child Development, vol. 84, no. 5, pp. 1542–1553, Sep. 2013.


  1. Beyens and A. I. Nathanson, “Electronic Media Use and Sleep Among Preschoolers: Evidence for Time-Shifted and Less Consolidated Sleep,” Health Commun, pp. 1–8, Jan. 2018.


  1. Beyens, P. M. Valkenburg, and J. T. Piotrowski, “Screen media use and ADHD-related behaviors: Four decades of research,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 115, no. 40, pp. 9875–9881, 02 2018.


  1. Birken, “Handheld screen time linked with speech delays in young children,” presented at the 2017 Pediatric Academic Societies (PAS) Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 04-May-2017.


  1. Blair et al., “Salivary cortisol mediates effects of poverty and parenting on executive functions in early childhood,” Child Dev, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 1970–1984, Dec. 2011.


  1. M. Blass, D. R. Anderson, H. L. Kirkorian, T. A. Pempek, I. Price, and M. F. Koleini, “On the road to obesity: Television viewing increases intake of high-density foods,” Physiol. Behav., vol. 88, no. 4–5, pp. 597–604, Jul. 2006.


  1. M. Borghese et al., “Mediating role of television time, diet patterns, physical activity and sleep duration in the association between television in the bedroom and adiposity in 10 year-old children,” Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, vol. 12, p. 60, May 2015.


  1. Bozzola et al., “Media devices in pre-school children: the recommendations of the Italian pediatric society,” Ital J Pediatr, vol. 44, no. 1, p. 69, Jun. 2018.


  1. Braig et al., “Screen Time, Physical Activity and Self-Esteem in Children: The Ulm Birth Cohort Study,” Int J Environ Res Public Health, vol. 15, no. 6, 16 2018.


  1. A. Brasel and J. Gips, “Media multitasking behavior: concurrent television and computer usage,” Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw, vol. 14, no. 9, pp. 527–534, Sep. 2011.


  1. Briones, “Harnessing the Web: How E-Health and E-Health Literacy Impact Young Adults’ Perceptions of Online Health Information,” Med 2 0, vol. 4, no. 2, Dec. 2015.


  1. Brown, M. A. Scharf, C. Bustos, D. Chavira, and M. T. Stein, “‘Media Addiction’ in a 10-Year-Old Boy,” J Dev Behav Pediatr, vol. 38 Suppl 1, pp. S69–S72, Mar. 2017.


  1. Bruni, S. Sette, L. Fontanesi, R. Baiocco, F. Laghi, and E. Baumgartner, “Technology Use and Sleep Quality in Preadolescence and Adolescence,” J Clin Sleep Med, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 1433–1441, Dec. 2015.


  1. Burnay, B. J. Bushman, and F. Larøi, “Effects of sexualized video games on online sexual harassment,” Aggressive Behavior, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 214–223, Mar. 2019.


  1. G. Bus, Z. K. Takacs, and C. A. T. Kegel, “Affordances and limitations of electronic storybooks for young children’s emergent literacy,” Developmental Review, vol. 35, pp. 79–97, Mar. 2015.


  1. M. Buxton, A.-M. Chang, J. C. Spilsbury, T. Bos, H. Emsellem, and K. L. Knutson, “Sleep in the modern family: protective family routines for child and adolescent sleep,” Sleep Health, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 15–27, May 2015.


  1. Cajochen et al., “Evening exposure to a light-emitting diodes (LED)-backlit computer screen affects circadian physiology and cognitive performance,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 110, no. 5, pp. 1432–1438, Mar. 2011.


  1. L. Calvert et al., “The American Psychological Association Task Force assessment of violent video games: Science in the service of public interest.,” American Psychologist, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 126–143, 2017.


  1. D. Cameron et al., “Effects of prenatal exposure to cigarettes on anthropometrics, energy intake, energy expenditure, and screen time in children,” Physiol. Behav., vol. 194, pp. 394–400, Oct. 2018.


Canadian Paediatric Society, Digital Health Task Force, Ottawa, Ontario, “Screen time and young children: Promoting health and development in a digital world,” Paediatr Child Health, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 461–477, Nov. 2017.


  1. M. Carrier, L. D. Rosen, N. A. Cheever, and A. F. Lim, “Causes, effects, and practicalities of everyday multitasking,” Developmental Review, vol. 35, pp. 64–78, Mar. 2015.


  1. Carter, P. Rees, L. Hale, D. Bhattacharjee, and M. Paradkar, “A meta-analysis of the effect of media devices on sleep outcomes,” JAMA Pediatr, vol. 170, no. 12, pp. 1202–1208, Dec. 2016.


  1. M. Cespedes, M. W. Gillman, K. Kleinman, S. L. Rifas-Shiman, S. Redline, and E. M. Taveras, “Television viewing, bedroom television, and sleep duration from infancy to mid-childhood,” Pediatrics, vol. 133, no. 5, pp. e1163-1171, May 2014.


  1. M. Cha et al., “Effect of Media Use on Adolescent Body Weight,” Prev Chronic Dis, vol. 15, p. E141, 21 2018.


A.-M. Chang, D. Aeschbach, J. F. Duffy, and C. A. Czeisler, “Evening use of light-emitting eReaders negatively affects sleep, circadian timing, and next-morning alertness,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 112, no. 4, pp. 1232–1237, Jan. 2015.


  1. Y. Chang, E.-J. Park, H.-J. Yoo, J. W. Lee, and Y. Shin, “Electronic Media Exposure and Use among Toddlers,” Psychiatry Investig, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 568–573, Jun. 2018.


C.-Y. Chen, H.-Y. Huang, F.-Y. Tseng, Y.-C. Chiu, and W. J. Chen, “Media alcohol advertising with drinking behaviors among young adolescents in Taiwan,” Drug Alcohol Depend, vol. 177, pp. 145–152, May 2017.


  1. Cheng, T. Maeda, S. Yoichi, Z. Yamagata, K. Tomiwa, and Japan Children’s Study Group, “Early television exposure and children’s behavioral and social outcomes at age 30 months,” J Epidemiol, vol. 20 Suppl 2, pp. S482-489, 2010.


  1. H. M. Cheung, R. Bedford, I. R. Saez De Urabain, A. Karmiloff-Smith, and T. J. Smith, “Daily touchscreen use in infants and toddlers is associated with reduced sleep and delayed sleep onset,” Sci Rep, vol. 7, Apr. 2017.


  1. Chindamo et al., “Sleep and new media usage in toddlers,” Eur. J. Pediatr., vol. 178, no. 4, pp. 483–490, Apr. 2019.


  1. D. Chinoy, J. F. Duffy, and C. A. Czeisler, “Unrestricted evening use of light‐emitting tablet computers delays self‐selected bedtime and disrupts circadian timing and alertness,” Physiol Rep, vol. 6, no. 10, May 2018.


  1. Chiong and C. Shuler, “Learning: Is there an app for that,” in Investigations of young children’s usage and learning with mobile devices and apps. New York: The Joan Ganz Cooney Center at Sesame Workshop, 2010.


  1. Chonchaiya, P. Nuntnarumit, and C. Pruksananonda, “Comparison of television viewing between children with autism spectrum disorder and controls: TV viewing in autistic children,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 100, no. 7, pp. 1033–1037, Jul. 2011.


  1. Chonchaiya and C. Pruksananonda, “Television viewing associates with delayed language development,” Acta Paediatrica, vol. 97, no. 7, pp. 977–982, Jul. 2008.


  1. Chonchaiya, T. Wilaisakditipakorn, N. Vijakkhana, and C. Pruksananonda, “Background media exposure prolongs nighttime sleep latency in Thai infants,” Pediatric Research, vol. 81, p. 322, Nov. 2016.


  1. S. Chou, Y. M. Hunt, E. B. Beckjord, R. P. Moser, and B. W. Hesse, “Social media use in the United States: implications for health communication,” J. Med. Internet Res., vol. 11, no. 4, p. e48, Nov. 2009.


  1. A. Christakis, J. S. B. Ramirez, and J. M. Ramirez, “Overstimulation of newborn mice leads to behavioral differences and deficits in cognitive performance,” Sci Rep, vol. 2, p. 546, 2012.


  1. A. Christakis et al., “Modifying media content for preschool children: a randomized controlled trial,” Pediatrics, vol. 131, no. 3, pp. 431–438, Mar. 2013.


  1. A. Christakis et al., “Audible television and decreased adult words, infant vocalizations, and conversational turns: a population-based study,” Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med, vol. 163, no. 6, pp. 554–558, Jun. 2009.


  1. A. Christakis, J. S. B. Ramirez, S. M. Ferguson, S. Ravinder, and J.-M. Ramirez, “How early media exposure may affect cognitive function: A review of results from observations in humans and experiments in mice,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., vol. 115, no. 40, pp. 9851–9858, 02 2018.


  1. A. Christakis, F. J. Zimmerman, D. L. DiGiuseppe, and C. A. McCarty, “Early television exposure and subsequent attentional problems in children,” Pediatrics, vol. 113, no. 4, pp. 708–713, Apr. 2004.


  1. H. Cillero and R. Jago, “Systematic review of correlates of screen-viewing among young children,” Prev Med, vol. 51, 2010.


  1. P. Cliff, S. J. Howard, J. S. Radesky, J. McNeill, and S. A. Vella, “Early Childhood Media Exposure and Self-Regulation: Bi-Directional Longitudinal Associations,” Acad Pediatr, Apr. 2018.


  1. Collet, B. Gagnière, C. Rousseau, A. Chapron, L. Fiquet, and C. Certain, “Case-control study found that primary language disorders were associated with screen exposure,” Acta Paediatr., Nov. 2018.


  1. Collet, “Évaluation du lien entre l’exposition aux écrans chez les jeunes enfants et l’apparition de troubles primaires du langage : étude cas- témoins en Ille-et- Vilaine,” Rennes, 2017.


  1. L. Connell, A. R. Lauricella, and E. Wartella, “Parental co-use of media technology with their young children in the USA,” Journal of Children and Media, vol. 9, 2015.


  1. A. Conners-Burrow, L. M. McKelvey, and J. J. Fussell, “Social Outcomes Associated With Media Viewing Habits of Low-Income Preschool Children,” Early Education and Development, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 256–273, Mar. 2011.


  1. Cools, K. Martelaer, C. Samaey, and C. Andries, “Fundamental movement skill performance of preschool children in relation to family context,” J Sports Sci, vol. 29, 2011.


COUNCIL ON COMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA, “Media and Young Minds,” PEDIATRICS, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. e20162591–e20162591, Nov. 2016.


  1. L. Courage, A. N. Murphy, S. Goulding, and A. E. Setliff, “When the television is on: The impact of infant-directed video on 6- and 18-month-olds’ attention during toy play and on parent–infant interaction,” Infant Behavior and Development, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 176–188, Apr. 2010.


  1. L. Courage and A. E. Setliff, “When babies watch television: Attention-getting, attention-holding, and the implications for learning from video material,” Developmental Review, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 220–238, Jun. 2010.


  1. Cox, H. Skouteris, L. Rutherford, M. Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, D. Dell’ Aquila, and L. L. Hardy, “Television viewing, television content, food intake, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-sectional study of preschool children aged 2-6 years,” Health Promot J Austr, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 58–62, Apr. 2012.


  1. M. Coyne, W. A. Warburton, L. W. Essig, and L. A. Stockdale, “Violent video games, externalizing behavior, and prosocial behavior: A five-year longitudinal study during adolescence,” Dev Psychol, vol. 54, no. 10, pp. 1868–1880, Oct. 2018.


  1. Cristia and A. Seidl, “Parental Reports on Touch Screen Use in Early Childhood,” PLOS ONE, vol. 10, no. 6, p. e0128338, Jun. 2015.


  1. A. Dalton et al., “Early exposure to movie smoking predicts established smoking by older teens and young adults,” Pediatrics, vol. 123, no. 4, pp. e551-558, Apr. 2009.


  1. G. M. de Araújo, B. C. Turi, B. Locci, C. A. A. Mesquita, N. B. Fonsati, and H. L. Monteiro, “Patterns of Physical Activity and Screen Time Among Brazilian Children,” J Phys Act Health, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 457–461, Jun. 2018.


  1. de Jong, T. L. S. Visscher, R. A. HiraSing, M. W. Heymans, J. C. Seidell, and C. M. Renders, “Association between TV viewing, computer use and overweight, determinants and competing activities of screen time in 4- to 13-year-old children,” Int J Obes (Lond), vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 47–53, Jan. 2013.


  1. Del Rey, J. A. Casas, and R. Ortega, “Impact of the ConRed program on different cyberbulling roles,” Aggress Behav, vol. 42, no. 2, pp. 123–135, Apr. 2016.


  1. DeLisi, M. G. Vaughn, D. A. Gentile, C. A. Anderson, and J. J. Shook, “Violent Video Games, Delinquency, and Youth Violence,” Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 132–142, Oct. 2012.


  1. S. DeLoache et al., “Do babies learn from baby media?,” Psychol Sci, vol. 21, no. 11, pp. 1570–1574, Nov. 2010.


  1. Desmurget, TV lobotomie: la vérité scientifique sur les effets de la télévision. Paris: M. Milo, 2011.


  1. Dirani, J. G. Crowston, and T. Y. Wong, “From reading books to increased smart device screen time,” Br J Ophthalmol, Nov. 2018.


  1. Domingues-Montanari, “Clinical and psychological effects of excessive screen time on children,” J Paediatr Child Health, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 333–338, Apr. 2017.


  1. E. Domoff, K. Harrison, A. N. Gearhardt, D. A. Gentile, J. C. Lumeng, and A. L. Miller, “Development and Validation of the Problematic Media Use Measure: A Parent Report Measure of Screen Media ‘Addiction’ in Children,” Psychol Pop Media Cult, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 2–11, Jan. 2019.


  1. L. Downing, J. Hnatiuk, and K. D. Hesketh, “Prevalence of sedentary behavior in children under 2years: A systematic review,” Prev Med, vol. 78, pp. 105–114, Sep. 2015.


  1. Duch, E. M. Fisher, I. Ensari, and A. Harrington, “Screen time use in children under 3 years old: a systematic review of correlates,” Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, vol. 10, p. 102, Aug. 2013.


  1. Duch et al., “Association of screen time use and language development in Hispanic toddlers: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study,” Clin Pediatr (Phila), vol. 52, no. 9, pp. 857–865, Sep. 2013.


  1. Duflo, “L’enfant et les écrans : entre addiction et temps volé,” Médecine et enfance, pp. 194–198, Sep-2016.


  1. Duflo, Quand les écrans deviennent neurotoxiques. Vanves: Marabout, 2018.


  1. L. Dunckley, Reset your child’s brain: a four-week plan to end meltdowns, raise grades, and boost social skills by reversing the effects of electronic screen-time. Novato, California: New World Library, 2015.


  1. F. Dutra, C. C. Kaufmann, A. D. Pretto, and E. P. Albernaz, “Television viewing habits and their influence on physical activity and childhood overweight,” Jornal de Pediatria (Versão em Português), vol. 91, 2015.


  1. A. Emond, L. K. Tantum, D. Gilbert-Diamond, S. J. Kim, R. K. Lansigan, and S. B. Neelon, “Household chaos and screen media use among preschool-aged children: a cross-sectional study,” BMC Public Health, vol. 18, no. 1, p. 1210, Oct. 2018.


  1. R. Engelhardt, M. O. Mazurek, and K. Sohl, “Media Use and Sleep Among Boys With Autism Spectrum Disorder, ADHD, or Typical Development,” PEDIATRICS, vol. 132, no. 6, pp. 1081–1089, Dec. 2013.


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